El agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites
CITES is sometime seen by botanic gardens as a barrier to obtaining and exchanging plant material but, as Noel McGough argues, in addition to its role in regulating international movement of plants, CITES and Target 11 of the GSPC can be used as a potent tool in telling the story of wild plants in our daily lives.
Swedish jail cells el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites quite comfortable, the furnishings minimalist with a hint of IKEA. During the meeting I took the opportunity to meet representatives of Swedish botanic gardens to explore how they could interact with CITES on a national and global level. CITES is often seen by botanic gardens as a barrier to movement of plant material, but it can provide a novel mechanism for capacity building and training.
This makes it vital for all of us interested in plants, who support Target XI of the GSPC — No species of wild flora endangered by international trade — to push the essential role of botanic gardens in conservation. Most El agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites staff have had limited access to training on plants, but botanic gardens make ideal venues for training workshops. UK Customs and Police hold regular training sessions for their officers on the practical implementation of CITES, the legislation involved, basic identification skills, the plants and animals covered by the Convention, what form these are traded in and how they might be smuggled.
The training is held in the Herbarium, which inspires a sense of wonder at the diversity of plant material and the science that is needed to support the vital base block of conservation — putting the right name to a plant. The officers get a quick introduction to el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites and see a wide range of el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites diversity in the living collections.
Next we stun them with the many different forms in which wild plants are traded — and then relent and give a simple risk analysis of the types they might encounter. By the end of the week, even the most hardened customs officer with long experience of drug smuggling is enthused by the diversity of plants and the resources botanic gardens can provide to help them do their jobs.
We shamelessly promote the role of botanic gardens and find the officers often return with their families to explore the gardens. All are produced in Spanish, French and English. We make sure no customs or police officer leaves Kew without a set those with restricted luggage allowance get CD-ROMs. Hanna Werblan-Jakubiec and Marcin Zych have also customized training workshops for Polish customs officers.
Steve Meredith of the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide BGA reports a successful week-long schools programme with the Australian Quarantine Service to raise awareness of the illegal import of plants. Quarantine officers brought in trained dogs used at Australian airports to detect fresh and dried plant material. Seeing the dogs in action roused the interest of students and a weeds and endangered plants walk in the garden reinforced the message.
The Quarantine Service now runs a regular station at the world environment day event at BGA using an actor in a dog suit — not quite the real thing but el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites gets the story across! The International Framework, which leads the world in CITES education, has trained students from 68 countries and celebrates its 10th course in We divide students into: Then we pick a strong chairperson from the student body and begin.
Opposing countries criticize the aims of the Proponents, lack of scientific data and poor consultation with range states, expound on the adequacy of existing control mechanisms in exporting countries, and claim that branding the wood an endangered species will kill off trade! The NGOs grow restless but are not allowed to speak until the Parties have finished — they attempt to interrupt and calls are made for the expulsion of Treehuggers International.
One country calls for a vote to close the debate and for a secret vote on the listing. Calls are made from the floor that some countries lack approved credentials, so the Chair consults the CITES Secretariat tutor and voting papers are only given to countries with valid credentials.
NGOs chant slogans and are expelled. The secret vote gives a simple majority in favour el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites listing Cedrela on CITES — but it does not pass as a two-thirds majority is required.
The role-play ends with students still hotly debating, and the cries: Is that all the time we get? How do we get more science in? Another role-play breaks the class into: The smugglers hide controlled and non-controlled specimens in their luggage. The customs officials can ask 10 questions of the passengers, then have 10 minutes to search their bags and pass on any items of concern to the scientists with a list of questions.
The scientists have 45 minutes to answer, but cannot give additional information. The customs officers then present their findings. Finally the tutor goes through what was smuggled, what was missed and any problems with identification or interpretation of the CITES listings.
Botanic gardens play a major role in holding and caring for seized or confiscated plants. Invariably consignments of seized material arrive late on Friday afternoon resulting in a hectic rush to document and secure the plants. Plants may be incorporated in garden collections for display, education and propagation, but remain US property, not to be sold or disposed of — though propagules of the plants belong to the garden.
In —, overplants were placed in US rescue centres. The Daily Californian, the student newspaper of the University of California at Berkeley, has published an article outlining its role in the PRC, with plant-trade stories. CITES can help build partnerships for botanic gardens supporting GSPC targets, reinforcing the value of horticultural expertise in planning for sustainable use.
Inscientists and horticulturalists from Tbilisi Botanic and Institute of Botany in Georgia teamed up with Microsoft Research Cambridge and Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, to create a sustainable harvesting model for Galanthus woronowii — the Georgian snowdrop. Using the model, the group predicted that the snowdrop populations could easily support commercial harvesting levels of around 15 million bulbs a year, securing the trade of this valuable commodity for the country.
The team surveyed the national status of plant populations, cultivation and harvesting methods and then pioneered a computational approach to estimate the abundance and distribution of bulbs, allowing an overall quota and regional quotas to be recommended.
The findings were well received by the Georgian authorities and most recommendations, including preventing harvesting from sites of high conservation value, were implemented. What do snooker cues, Scrabble piece holders, futon beds and orangutans have in common? The wood products are routinely made from species of Gonystylus Ramin from the swamp forests of Malaysia and Indonesia, habitat they share with orangutans. Rosewood oil is an essential ingredient of many high-end perfumes from Chanel to LUSH cosmetics, and Brazil is now the last remaining source.
Pau Brazil Caesalpina echinata is the national tree of Brazil and gave the country its name. Exploited for dye from the s, the wood later became the material of choice for fine musical bow making. CITES regulated trade in Candelilla wax el agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites Euphorbia antisyphilicawild collected in Mexico, supplies makers of lipstick, chewing gum, fruit waxes, lubricant for missiles and more. The Seychelles recently listed Coco-de-mer Lodoicea maldivicadue to increasing demand for the kernel as an aphrodisiac in China, while the Russian Federation listed the Korean Pine Pinus koraiensis to help protect the habitat of the Amur Tiger.
Developed for arboreta, public gardens and nature centres, with interactive displays and education materials that can be locally adapted, it will improve public understanding of the value of trees and the threats they face. Botanic Gardens can use El agente comercio internacional que especies amenazadas de extincion cites as a window on international trade, an outreach tool that crosses borders and covers important products. As CITES seeks to address trade in timber and medicinal plants, gardens can take a greater role in bringing about sustainable use.
But botanic gardens seldom promote their own work and expertise — post we need to tell more of our success stories and create new ones.
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